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Five crop straw comprehensive utilization technologies

Release time:2018-08-02

Core Tip: China straw network comprehensive report, the five crop straw comprehensive utilization technology is recommended as follows: 1 straw direct returning technology 1.1 straw mechanical buried returning technology straw mechanical filling and returning technology

China straw network comprehensive report, the five crop straw comprehensive utilization technology recommended as follows:

1 Straw direct returning technology
1.1 Straw mechanical buried and returning technology
Straw mechanized and landfill technology is to use the straw chopping machine to crush the corn, wheat, rice and other crop straws in the ground, evenly spread on the surface, and then use the rotary tillage equipment to plow the soil into the soil, so that the straw and the surface layer The soil is thoroughly mixed and decomposed and rotted in the soil to achieve a simple and easy-to-use suitable technique for improving soil structure, increasing organic matter content, and promoting continuous crop yield increase.
1.2 Straw mechanical burying technology
Straw mechanical burying and returning technology is to use the straw pulverizer to smash the crop straw after picking the seed, and evenly spread it on the surface, then plough the soil into the soil to make it rot and decompose, which is beneficial to completely retain the nutrients of the straw in the soil. In the soil, increase soil organic matter content, fertility, improve soil structure, and reduce pests and diseases.
1.3 Straw mulching technology
The method of straw mulching and returning to the field refers to the technique of planting the raked crop before harvesting the crop, smashing the stalk or covering the stalk directly to the surface, or after the crop is harvested, and carrying out the no-till live broadcast of the raking crop, or harvesting The straw covers the other fields, thereby regulating the ground temperature, reducing the evaporation of soil moisture, inhibiting the growth of weeds, increasing the soil organic matter, and effectively alleviating the contradiction of labor, saving labor and energy, and reducing investment. Covering the field is generally divided into five situations: First, the crops are planted, and the crops are sown in the field before the crops are harvested. When the crops are harvested, the stalks are covered with stalks to cover the surface; the second is the live crops. Before, the straw is evenly covered on the surface of the cultivated soil; the third is transplanting crops such as rapeseed, sweet potatoes, melons, etc., the straw is first covered on the surface and then transplanted; the fourth is the summer sowing wide crops such as cotton, the last cultivator After weeding and fertilizing, cover the straw; the fifth is fruit trees, tea mulberry, etc., and the crop straws are taken out and covered in different places.
2 Straw decomposing technology
Adding decomposing agent Straw returning technology is to inoculate microbial fungicide (referred to as decomposing agent) by inoculation of exogenous organic materials, fully utilize a large amount of lignocellulose degrading bacteria in decomposing agent, and rapidly degrade straw lignocellulosic material, and finally in suitable nutrition. Under the conditions of temperature, humidity, aeration and pH, the straw is decomposed and mineralized into simple organic matter, humus and mineral nutrients. It includes two methods. One is to inoculate organic materials to decompose microbial agents when the straw is directly returned to the field, and promote the rapid decomposing of the straw returned to the field; the second is to accumulate or stack the straws on the roadside, inoculation of organic materials. The microbial agent is returned to the field after the straw is basically decomposed (rotted).
3 Straw bioreactor technology
Straw is re-decomposed into carbon dioxide, organic matter, minerals, non-metallic substances under the condition of oxygen (air) by adding microbial strains, catalysts and scavengers, and produces a certain amount of heat and a large number of spores resistant to pests and diseases. These products are then supplied to crops through certain agronomic facilities to make the crops grow better.
4 Straw organic fertilizer production technology
The production of straw organic fertilizer is to use the sorghum preparation and various enzymes in a certain humidity (stalk holding capacity of 65%) and a certain temperature (50 ° C ~ 70 ° C) to vigorously release energy, on the one hand the straw Cellulose decomposes quickly; on the other hand, a large amount of bacterial proteins are formed, which are directly absorbed or converted into humus by plants. By creating good environmental conditions for the normal reproduction of microorganisms, promoting the metabolic process of microorganisms, accelerating the decomposition of organic materials, releasing and accumulating heat, increasing the temperature of materials, killing pathogenic bacteria and parasite eggs, and obtaining high-quality organic fertilizers.
Second, straw feed utilization technology
1 straw green (yellow) storage technology
Straw silage is to provide a favorable environment for beneficial bacteria (anaerobic bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria) under suitable conditions, so that aerobic microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria can be weakened and stopped after the oxygen is exhausted. The purpose of inhibiting and killing various microorganisms and preserving feed. Since the microbial fermentation in silage produces useful metabolites, the silage has a taste of aroma, acid, sweetness, etc., which can greatly improve the palatability of herbivorous animals.
2 Straw alkalization / ammoniation technology
There are three aspects to the action mechanism of ammoniated straw: one is alkalization. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the straw can be separated, and the cell wall is expanded, the structure becomes loose, and the rumen liquid in the rumen of the ruminant livestock is easily infiltrated, thereby improving the digestibility of the straw. The second is ammoniation. Ammonia and ammonia in straw produce ammonium acetate, a non-protein nitrogen compound that is a nutrient source for rumen microbes in ruminants. It can further synthesize bacterial proteins together with related elements and be absorbed by animals to enhance straw. Nutritional value and digestibility. The third is the neutralization. Ammonia neutralizes the potential acidity in the straw and creates a good environment for the growth and reproduction of rumen microorganisms.
3 straw briquetting (granule) feed processing technology
Straw briquetting feed refers to high-density block feed which is prepared by mixing high-pressure and high-pressure rolling with various agricultural and sideline products and feed additives according to a certain feed formula after mechanically cutting or smashing various crop straws. Straw briquetting feed processing can strengthen vitamins, trace elements, non-protein nitrogen, additives and other ingredients into the pellet feed, so that the feed reaches a balance of various nutrients.
4 Straw silk processing technology
After the straw is chopped or smashed, it is convenient for the animals to chew, which is beneficial to increase feed intake and reduce straw waste. However, after the straw is pulverized, the residence time of the feed (grass) in the rumen of the livestock is shortened, the digestibility of the fibrous material is lowered, the ruminating phenomenon is reduced, and the pH of the rumen is lowered. Therefore, the chopping and smashing of straw will not only affect the separation rate and utilization rate, but also have a certain impact on the physiological functions of livestock. Straw silking processing not only has all the advantages of straw chopping and pulverization treatment, but also separates cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. At the same time, because the straw silk is longer, it can prolong its residence time in the rumen and is beneficial to livestock. Digestion and absorption, thereby achieving the dual effects of improving the straw feeding rate and increasing the conversion rate of straw.
5 straw micro-storage technology
The machined straw is stored in a certain facility (cement pool, soil, cylinder, plastic bag, etc.), and microbial fermentation is added to carry out microbial fermentation treatment, so that the straw becomes acid, fragrant, and winey. The technology of eating roughage is called straw microbial fermentation storage technology, referred to as straw micro-storage technology. According to the different storage facilities, the methods of straw micro-storage mainly include: cement sputum micro-storage method, soil micro-storage method, plastic bag micro-storage method, and micro-storage method in baling sputum.
Third, straw base material utilization technology
1 Straw base edible mushroom cultivation technology
Straw base (matrix) refers to the organic solid material which is mainly used for the growth of animals, plants and microorganisms, which is processed or prepared by using straw as the main raw material, and also provides certain nutrients for the growth of animals, plants and microorganisms. Straw stems such as wheat straw and straw are one of the excellent raw materials for cultivating grass rot fungi. They can be used as a carbon source for grass rot fungi, and by using nitrogen sources such as cow dung, wheat bran, bean cake or rice bran, under suitable environmental conditions. You can cultivate delicious mushrooms and straw mushrooms.
2 Straw plant cultivation substrate technology
Straw plant cultivation substrate preparation technology is based on straw as the main raw material, adding other organic waste to adjust the C/N ratio, physical properties (such as porosity, permeability, etc.), while adjusting the water so that the water content of the mixed material is 60- 70%, aerobic high temperature composting in a ventilated, dry and rainproof environment to humify and stabilize. The physical and chemical properties of a good soilless culture substrate should have the following characteristics:
(1) It can satisfy a variety of plant cultivation, and meet the growth needs of plants in various periods;
(2) It has a light weight and is easy to operate, which is beneficial to the transportation of the substrate;
(3) It has a large total porosity, and maintains a large venting porosity after water saturation, which can provide sufficient oxygen for the root system;
(4) Good thermal insulation performance, no damage to plant roots due to overheating in summer and over-cooling in winter;
(5) Large water absorption and strong water holding capacity;
(6) It does not carry soil-borne pests and diseases.
Fourth, straw fuel utilization technology
1 Straw curing molding technology
Straw solid molding fuel is the use of lignin as a binder to extrude loose straw and other agricultural and forestry residues into pellets, blocks and rods. It is efficient, clean, easy to ignite, emits zero carbon dioxide, and is easy to store and transport. It is easy to realize the advantages of industrialized production and scale application. It is a kind of high-quality fuel, which can provide cooking and heating energy for rural residents. It can also be used as agricultural product processing industry (grain drying, vegetables, tobacco, etc.), facility agriculture (greenhouse). ), aquaculture industry and other districts of different sizes of heating fuel, in addition to the fuel for industrial boilers and power plants, instead of fossil fuels such as coal.
2 Straw pyrolysis gasification technology
1 Straw gasification technology
The technology uses biomass as a raw material, and uses oxygen (air, oxygen-enriched or pure oxygen), water vapor or hydrogen as a gasifying agent (or gasification medium), and the biomass is heated by a thermochemical reaction under high temperature conditions. The process of converting a combustible portion into a combustible gas. The gas produced during the gasification of biomass, the main active components are CO, H2 and CH4, etc., called biomass gas.
2 straw retorting technology
The technology is a method for drying or drying straw, pulverizing, and isolating air in a dry distillation kettle to obtain products such as acetic acid, methanol, wood tar anti-polymerization agent, creosote and charcoal, and is also called straw carbon oil. Polygeneration technology. The charcoal produced by straw retorting can be called mechanism straw charcoal or mechanical charcoal. According to the difference of temperature, dry distillation can be divided into low temperature dry distillation (temperature is 500~580 °C), medium temperature dry distillation (temperature is 660~750 °C) and high temperature dry distillation (temperature is 900~1100 °C). 100kg straw can produce 30 kg of straw charcoal, 50 kg of straw vinegar and 18 kg of straw gas. Thermal cracking and gasification of biomass can also produce biochar, as well as bio-oil and mixtures.
3 Straw biogas production technology
1 household straw biogas production technology
Biogas is a mixed gas composed of various components, including methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and a small amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen (N2), etc. Methane accounts for 50% to 70%, carbon dioxide accounts for 30% to 40%, and other gases are extremely rare. The household straw biogas production technology is an anaerobic fermentation biogas production technology using the existing rural household biogas digesters as the fermentation carrier and the crop straw as the main fermentation raw material.
2 Large and medium-sized straw biogas production technology
The large and medium-sized straw biogas production technology refers to the biogas production technology with a single anaerobic fermentation device with a volume of more than 300 cubic meters as the main fermentation raw material with crop straw (corn straw, wheat straw, rice straw, etc.).
V. Straw raw material utilization technology
1 Straw man-made board production technology
The straw artificial board is made of straw such as wheat straw or rice straw, cut, pulverized, dried, sorted, mixed with isocyanate adhesive, paving, pre-pressing, hot pressing and post-treatment (including cooling, trimming, health maintenance). Etc.) A plate made of various processes such as sanding and inspection. China's straw artificial board has successfully developed a variety of straw products such as wheat straw particle board, straw fiber board, corn stover, cotton stalk, sunflower stalk particle board, soft straw composite wall material, straw plastic composite material.
2 Straw composite production technology
Straw composite material is made of renewable straw fiber as the main raw material, compounding a certain proportion of polymer base material (plastic raw material), processed by special technology through high-tech means such as physics, chemical and biological engineering. A multi-purpose new material that is reversible recycling. The straw materials referred to herein include wheat straw, straw, hemp, clam shell, cotton straw, sunflower stem, bagasse, soybean hull, peanut shell, etc., all of which are low or even negative biomass resources, after screening and crushing. After the process such as grinding, it becomes a woody industrial raw material, so the straw composite material is also called wood-plastic composite material.
3 straw cleaning pulping technology
1 organic solvent pulping technology
Organic solvent extraction of lignin is to make full use of organic solvents (or a small amount of catalyst) to achieve good solubility and volatility, to achieve separation, hydrolysis or dissolution of lignin in plants, making lignin and cellulose fully and efficiently Separate production technology. The cellulose obtained in the production can be directly used as paper pulp for papermaking; and the obtained pulping waste liquid can be recovered by distillation to recover the organic solvent, and can be recycled repeatedly, and the whole process forms a closed circulation system without waste water or a small amount of waste water. Really prevent the environmental pollution of pulp and papermaking wastewater from the source; and through the distillation, the lignin can be purified, the obtained high-purity organic lignin is a good chemical raw material, and also provides a new way for the development and utilization of lignin resources. It avoids the serious pollution of the environment and the waste of resources in the traditional paper industry. In recent years, organic solvent and organic acid pulping have been studied in organic solvent pulping.
2 biological pulping technology
Biopulping is a process that utilizes the ability of microorganisms to decompose lignin to remove lignin from the pulping material and separate the plant tissue from the fibers into pulp. Biopulping includes biochemical pulping and biomechanical pulping. Biochemical pulping is a process in which a biodegradant is formulated with a certain proportion of an aqueous solution, and the enzyme begins to produce activity. After soaking the grass fiber such as wheat straw, the active ingredient in the solution is quickly formed. It penetrates into the inside of the fiber and degrades non-fibrous components such as lignin and pectin to separate the fibers.
3 DMC cleaning pulping technology
The DMC catalyst is added to the forage to change the state of the lignin, soften the fiber, and at the same time separate the fibers by mechanical force; in this process, the fibers and hemicellulose are not destroyed, and almost all remain. The main components of DMC catalyst (used in pulping process) are organic and inorganic salts. Their main function is to soften cellulose and hemicellulose, improve fiber flexibility, modify lignin (reduce pollution load) and separate colloid and Ash. Compared with traditional technology and equipment, DMC clean pulping technology has the characteristics of “three nos” and “four nos”. "Three no": 1 does not need to use "raw materials" (the raw materials are widely used); 2 does not use alkali; 3 does not use high temperature and high pressure. "Four no": 1 no cooking equipment; 2 no alkali recovery equipment; 3 no pollutants (water, steam, solid) emissions; 4 no secondary pollution.
4 Straw block wall solar greenhouse construction technology
Straw block wall solar greenhouse is a kind of agricultural design using compressed straw blocks as solar greenhouse wall materials

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